Findings of Photo-ageing in Egyptian Patients |
Radwa Magdy, Ahmed Sadek.
|Click Here for a Printable PDF version|
Dermoscopy is a noninvasive optical surface microscopy useful for diagnosis of photoageing. Dermoscopic findings of photoageing include telangiectasia, vascular changes, pigmentation changes, seborrheic keratosis, actinic keratosis, periorbital comedones and cysts and superficial- deep- criss-cross wrinkles creating a dermoscopic photoageing scale (DPAS). Thirty two patients were examined and DPAS was recorded. It was proved that dermoscopy is a good objective analytical method for cutaneous photoageing.
Dermoscopy is a noninvasive optical surface microscopy useful for the diagnosis of photoageing .
Skin ageing is a complex process that is composed of chronologic (intrinsic) aging associated with genetics and (extrinsic) aging associated with ultraviolet (UV) exposure, alcohol, smoking, malnutrition and adverse environmental conditions .
The first trial to
classify skin photoageing was carried on by Glogau in 1996 and classified
the skin into four categories as shown in table1 .
The aim of such classification was to provide objective basis for the choice
of antiageing skin care regimens and procedures.
Table (1): Glogau Classification of photoageing 
Recent developments in the field of skin surface microscopy and the
availability of various dermoscopy techniques and options helped the
development of DPAS which is an objective method for analysis of facial skin
photoageing. The DPAS is calculated by counting the specific dermoscopic
findings (table 2) in four anatomical facial regions namely, the
forehead, the chin and both cheeks creating a total score of 44 .
Table (2): Dermoscopic photoaging scale (DPAS) evaluation criteria (1).
Patients and Methods
Thirty two individuals were evaluated for photoageing by clinical, dermoscopic examination and digital imaging of their facial sun exposed areas as forehead, right cheek, left cheek and chin to detect the prevalence of different dermoscopic findings in their lesions using the polarized contact dermlite II HR dermoscope (3Gen, Inc., San Juan Capistrano, California, USA.) and 10X optical zoom by Samsung S4 Zoom camera (Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Yeongtong-Gu Suwon-Shi, South Korea) and scored by the help of DPAS.
Thirty two individuals were examined, 7 individuals were grade 2 Glogau, 19 individuals were grade 3 Glogau and 6 patients were grade 4 Glogau.
The grade 2 Glogau individuals were examined and scored a mean DPAS of 10.28, grade 3 Glogau individuals scored mean DPAS of 12 while the grade 4 Glogau individuals scored a mean DPAS of 18.33.
Regarding DPAS of facial anatomic regions, the cheeks scored the highest (mean = 4.15 each), followed by the forehead scoring 2.8 as its mean score, while the chin scored lowest with 1.68 as its mean score.
A whole of 128 areas were examined and the most frequent sign seen was the solar lentigens (79 areas), followed by the hypo/hyper pigmentation seen in 76 ones, then the telangiectasias in 56 and the least was the actinic keratosis seen only in 2 areas. Senile comdeones, deep and criss-cross wrinkles were not seen in Glogau II individuals and the solar lentigens were the most prevalent finding in Glogau II & III individuals, however Yellow discoloration was the most common in Glogau IV individuals.
The incidence of telangiectasias and deep wrinkles was much higher in skin phototype III than IV individuals, while was almost the same for pigmentary disorders, also actinic keratosis were only seen in III individuals.
Facial skin photoageing is a major research area of concern mainly in the fair skinned populations; the first trial for classification was on basis of clinical assessment in 1996 by Glogau . It was not before 2013, thanks to the development of dermoscopy that Isik and colleagues  examined a total of 441 participants between the ages of 20-88 (mean 48.4 ± 17.7). The validity of their proposed DPAS was assessed by the evaluation of both the axillar and the gluteal regions, which were not sun exposed and photoaged. The scale was found to be highly reliable. Skin aging of patients from every decade was compared clinically with Glogou photoageing scale and Monheit-Fulton photoageing index and significant correlation was calculated as 0.773 and 0.774, respectively. An increase in the photoageing scores from young people toward elders according to their ages was observed and the same linear difference between their mean values was detected. In their study the most prevalent finding was telangiectasia . In our study, Glogau 4 individuals achieved the highest prevalence DPAS score which was higher than Glogau 2 and 3. In addition to that the cheeks scored higher mean DPAS than forehead and chin denoting that the photoageing in this facial anatomical region was more severe than the other sites, which may be explained by high prevalence of veiled females (partially covered) among Egyptian females. The most prevalent finding in our study was solar lentigens and this difference than the study performed by Isik and colleagues  may be attributed to the different prevalent skin phototypes in the two countries.
Dermoscopic photoageing scale is reliable in assessing photoaging in Egyptian patients of skin phototype III & IV.
References1. Isik B, Gurel MS, Erdemir AT, Kesmezacar O (2013). Development of skin aging scale by using dermoscopy. Skin Res Technol. 19(2). 69-74.
2. Yaar M, Gilchrest BA. Aging of skin. In: Wollf K, Gold smith LA and Katz SI, eds (2008). Fitzpatrick's dermatology in general medicine, Vol.1, 7th edn. New York: Mc-Graw Hill. pp. 963-973.
3. Glogau RG (1996). Aesthetic and anatomic analysis of the aging skin. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 15(3):134-b.
© 2015 Egyptian Dermatology Online Journal